Triple X Syndrome - Health Center

Triple X Syndrome

By Refadoc, Posted on : Monday, 21 December 2015 - 7:51 am IST

Triple X Syndrome – Basic Overview

Triple X Syndrome results from an abnormality of the chromosomes. It affects every one in 1000 women. Women generally have two X Chromosomes, getting one from each parent. However, in case of Triple X Syndrome, the female inherits three X Chromosomes.

Triple X Syndrome is caused due to error in the formation of either the mother’s egg or the father’s sperm. In certain cases, the syndrome could also be caused due to an error caused during the formative stages of the embryo’s development.

Most women or girls suffering from this symptom do not show any signs or symptoms of the condition. However, the symptoms tend to become more pronounced during the developmental years. The treatment and cure for the condition is dependent on the symptoms as well as the severity of the condition. 

Triple X Syndrome – Causes

Humans are known to inherit 46 chromosomes in all. These 46 are found in the form of 22 pairs along with a pair of sex chromosomes – one maternal and a paternal. These chromosomes contain genes which are the storehouse of the instructions responsible for determining every feature of the person.

These chromosomes are also responsible for determining the sex of the foetus. Normally, a child receives one sex chromosome from each parent. The mother can contribute one X chromosome, but the father has the liberty to pass on either an X chromosome or a Y chromosome. If the child receives an X chromosome from the father, the XX pairs makes the child a female genetically. Similarly, if a Y chromosome is contributed from the father, the XY pair makes the child a male genetically.

Females suffering from the Triple X Syndrome have a third X chromosome. This results due to the irregularities in either the mother’s egg cell or the father’s sperm cell. A random error in the egg or the sperm cell division is commonly known as non disjunction. This extra chromosome in the foetus does not appear until the later stages of the development. Triple X Syndrome is also known as Trisomy X, Triplo X Syndrome and the XXX Syndrome. 

Signs and Symptoms of Triple X Syndrome

The Triple X Syndrome may not cause any signs or symptoms. However, if symptoms appear, they include:

  •       Tall stature
  •       Presence of Epicanthal Folds–vertical folds of skin covering the inner corners of the eye
  •       Delay in the speech development
  •       Weak tone of the muscles (Hypotonia)
  •       Clinodactyly : Curved and pinkie fingers
  •       Constipation or abdominal problems
  •       Mental and behaviour health problems

It is recommended to visit a doctor in case your daughter is having delayed developmental process. 

Tests and Diagnosis of Triple X Syndrome:

Since many girls who suffer from Triple X Syndrome have a healthy and normal appearance, often the condition is left undiagnosed in majority of cases. Usually, the diagnosis is done accidently when the person is being checked for other medical conditions.

However, prenatal genetic testing – amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling are the best ways to diagnose Triple X Syndrome before the birth of the child. After the birth of the child, the syndrome can be diagnosed by going in for the chromosome analysis of the blood sample of the child. It is very important for the parents to go in for genetic counselling before opting for genetic testing so that they are aware of all the information regarding the syndrome. 

Treatment and Drugs for Triple X Syndrome

If your daughter has been diagnosed with Triple X Syndrome, the treatment option is entirely based on the symptoms and their intensity. In case the child has been going through learning disability, then counselling is prescribed for the same. This counselling aims to teach the child new techniques and strategies to help with the learning process and provides motivation for using these techniques in the everyday life.

The doctor often recommends regular screening throughout the developmental stage. This helps the doctors to check for signs of developmental delays and learning abilities and prescribe the correct treatment for the same. It is very important for the parents to provide their daughters with a supportive environment in order to make sure that she is not prone to stressful conditions. Demonstrating love and encouragement are the best ways to deal with the symptoms of the condition.

It is impossible to repair the changes which have been caused due to the extra X chromosome. However, with the correct treatment option, the nature and the frequency of the symptoms can be decreased considerably. With the treatment option, it is possible for the person to live a full and normal life.

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